Given any string, how many different permutations of that character set can be made? To answer that question, this Java program uses a recursive function to generate all permutations of a string passed as a command line argument. Most permutation generators that I have come across will only output permutations of the same length as the input set, e.g., enter 3 characters and the output will show permutations containing all 3 characters. This program, however, will generate all permutations of the input set from length 1 through *n*, where *n* is the total number of characters in the string. For example, if “abc” is entered, the program generates all permutations of length 1 to 3 characters: *a, b, c, ab, ac, ba, bc, ca, cb, abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba*.

Why is this useful? It probably isn’t. I wrote the code to see how the number of permutations grew with each additional character. I feel like this is also a standard introduction to Computer Science question so perhaps this will help someone do their homework assignment. From a practical standpoint, I suppose it could be used to help your *Scrabble* game. If you enter all of the letter tiles from your rack, this will generate all of the possible letter permutations. The code could be modified to validate those permutations against a *Scrabble* dictionary though it would be awfully suspicious if someone was typing into a computer/device throughout a game.

## Usage

The following illustrates the code being compiled and executed using the sample set “abc”.

java Permutation [string] [string] represents the set of characters to generate all permutations; multiple strings may be passed when separated by a space.

## Source Code

import java.util.ArrayList; public class Permutation { private ArrayList<String> permutations = null; private String characters = null; public static void main(String[] args) { Permutation p = null; ArrayList arrlist = null; for(String s: args) { p = new Permutation(s); arrlist = p.getPermutations(); System.out.println("Generating all permutations of string: "+p.getCharacters()); for(int i = 0; i < arrlist.size(); i++) { System.out.println(arrlist.get(i)); } System.out.println(""); } } public Permutation(String characters) { if((characters == null) || ("").equals(characters.trim())) { characters = ""; } this.characters = characters; } public String getCharacters() { return characters; } public ArrayList getPermutations() { this.permutations = new ArrayList<String>(); for(int j = 1; j <= getCharacters().length(); j++) { permute("",getCharacters(),j); } return this.permutations; } protected void permute(String prefix,String s,int length) { String word = null; for(int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) { word = prefix+s.charAt(i); if(word.length() == length) { permutations.add(word); } else { if(i == 0) { permute(word,s.substring(i+1,s.length()),length); } else if(i == (s.length()-1)) { permute(word,s.substring(0,s.length()-1),length); } else { permute(word,(s.substring(0,i)+s.substring(i+1,s.length())),length); } } } return; } }